Chronology of Naga Political Developments – Part Two
1964, April: Formation of Nagaland Peace Mission
- During the third Nagaland Baptist Convention at Wokha from January 31 to February 2, 1964, the church council resolved to form a mission to restore peace and find an amicable solution to the Naga political problem.
- The Nagaland Peace Mission was formed by the Nagaland Baptist Church Council to restore peace in the state and got the Government of India and NNC to sign an agreement to suspend operations in September 1964.
- The Nagaland Peace Mission comprised of Chaliha, veteran freedom fighter Jayaprakash Narayan and a prominent clergyman from England, Rev. Michael Scott.
1964, September 6 : Cease-Fire Agreement signed between the Federal Government of Nagaland and Government of India
- International Cease-Fire Agreement with the Federal Government of Nagaland, which was signed on May 24, 1964 at Sakraba in Chakhesang Region and came into effect on 6th September 1964.
- Jawaharlal Nehru passed away on 27th May 1964 which slowed down the bilateral talks.
1965, April 7: Formation of Eastern Naga Revolutionary Council (ENRC)
- Eastern Nagas formed the Eastern Naga Revolutionary Council (ENRC) on 7th April 1965 at Somra, a Tangkhul Naga village in Burma under the leadership of Eno (Mr.) Jopoh to defend their sovereignty against the Burmese aggressors.
1968, August 31 : GoI declares NNC / FGN as “Unlawful Association”
- The government of India declared that the NNC, the Federal Government of Nagaland and its Army (the Federal Army) were “unlawful associations” under the unlawful activities (prevention) Act, no. 37 of 1967.
1972, 21 January: Formation of Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh
- The remaining North-East Frontier Agency became the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh.
- Its administrative headquarters was Shillong (until 1974, when it was transferred to Itanagar). It got the status of State on 20th February, 1987.
1975, November 11 : Shillong Accord
- Shillong Accord was signed on 11 November 1975 between the Government of India and the NNC Federal Government Representative along with agreement to give up arms.
- Supposed to be a “solution” to the “Naga Problem”, but elements within the NNC were divided over the Shillong Agreement and the acceptance of the Indian Constitution. Soon afterwards, Isak Swu and Muivah denounced the Accord as ‘treason’ and the signatories representing the NNC-Federal Government were proclaimed traitors.
1978, September 9 : The Naga People’s Movement for Human Rights (NPMHR) is formed.
1979, March 10: Eastern Naga Revolutionary Council (ENRC) merged with the Naga National Council
- Eastern Naga Revolutionary Council (ENRC) merged with the Naga National Council on 10th March 1979 led by its President Eno S.S. Khaplang.
1980, January 31 : Formation of National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN)
- A group of about 140 members led by Thuingaleng Muivah, who were at that time in China, refused to accept the Shillong Accord, and formed the National Socialist Council of Nagaland in 1980.
- The Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) was established by former members of the NNC lead by Thuingaleng Muivah, Isak Chishi Swu and S.S.Khaplang (a Hemi Naga from Myanmar), who did not accept the Shillong Accord.
- The main goal of the organisation is to establish a sovereign Naga state, “Nagalim“, which would consist of all the areas inhabited by the Naga people in Northeast India and Northwest Myanmar. According to the NSCN manifesto, their slogan is “Nagaland for Christ“.
1988, April 30: NSCN split into two factions – NSCK (IM) and NSCN (K)
- NSCN split into NSCN (IM) and NSCN (K) after a violent inter-factional clashes.
- NSCN-K group was formed by Shangwang Shangyung Khaplang and is headquartered at Taga in Myanmar.
- Thuingaleng Muivah and Issak Chisi Swu floated NSCN-IM and is presently headquartered at Hebron, Dimapur, Nagaland.
1990, April 30 : Death of Mr. A.Z. Phizo, the exiled NNC President in London.
1990: Split in NNC
- In 1990 after death of Phizo, NNC split into NNC (A) led by Phizo’s daughter Adino and NNC (K) headed by Vice-president Khodao Yanthan. NNC (K) later merged with NSCN (IM)
1990, 1 May: Ms. Adino Phizo, the daughter of Mr. A.Z. Phizo, is made NNC (A) “acting president” by the ‘Shillong Accordist’ in the NNC.
1990, July 17 : Mr. Khodao Yanthan (from Lotha tribe) is elected the new president of the NNC (K)
- Mr. Khodao Yanthan (from Lotha tribe) is elected as the new president of the NNC (K) after he returned from his London exile.
- (From another source: Khodao was elected the president of the NNC at a meeting in Wokha on September 18, 1990)
1993, January 23 : The NSCN (IM) became a member of the “Underrepresented Nations and People Organisation (UNPO)”.
The NSCN (IM) became a member of the “Underrepresented Nations and People Organisation (UNPO)” on 23 January 1993 which is also considered one among the major Naga Political Developments, due to acceptance and representation of Nagas at a global stage like UNPO.
An excerpt from the UNPO page reads:
Nagalim is represented at UNPO by the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN(IM)). The NSCN was created in 1980 to strengthen the resistance movement of the Nagas after a delegation of the Naga National Council (NNC) signed an agreement with the Indian government committing to unconditional acceptance of the Constitution of India. The “Shillong Accord” was seen by the National Assembly of the Nagas as a betrayal to their movement and the NSCN stood up against it and gathered worldwide attention for the Naga case. Representatives of the NSCN attended various international meetings, visited numerous countries and, after resisting years of military attacks, engaged in negotiations with India’s central government in the 1990s, representing the interests of the Naga.
On 23 January 1993, the organisation was admitted to UNPO. The NSCN(IM) is still engaged in negotiations with the Indian government, having reached a historic pre-agreement in 2015. In August 2017, the organisation affirmed that the parties were close to a final agreement.
1995, June 15 : Prime Minister, P V Narasimha Rao met Muivah, Isak Swu and other in Paris. Series of meetings followed.
1995, November: Ministry of State (Home), Rajesh Pilot met Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chishi Swu in Bangkok.
1997, February 3: Prime Minister, H D Deve Gowda met Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chishi Swu in Zurich, Switzerland, which was followed by meetings in Bangkok and Geneva.
1997, August 1: Cease Fire Agreement between Govt. of India and NSCN (IM)
- The Government of India signed a ceasefire agreement with NSCN (IM) on July 25, 1997, which came into effect on August 1, 1997. Over 80 rounds of talks are held subsequently. (Source: South Asia Terrorism Portal)
1998, September 30: Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee met Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chishi Swu in Paris.
1998, November 14: The first ceasefire agreement between NSCN(K) and Government of India.
- Considered a major step among various Naga political developments, Union Government announces cease-fire with the National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K) for the first time for two months from November 15, 1998, to January 15, 1999.
- Shillong Accord- https://nagalandgk.com/the-shillong-accord/
Part One –Prior to the formation of Nagaland State.
Part Two –Post formation of Nagaland State till the year 2000.
Part Three: Year 2001 onwards.
- South Asia Terrorism Portal – http://www.satp.org/satporgtp/sair/Archives/sair10/10_41.htm#assessment2
- Peace Maker, UN – https://peacemaker.un.org/sites/peacemaker.un.org/files/IN_470628_Naga-Akbar%20Hydari%20Accord.pdf
- Centre for Development and Peace Studies: http://cdpsindia.org/nagaland_incident.asp