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Chronology of Naga Political Developments – Part Two



Chronology of Naga Political Developments – Part Two

This post presents brief notes on the Chronology of Naga political developments after the formation of Nagaland State. For Naga political developments prior to the formation of Nagaland State, refer Part One.


1964, April: Formation of Nagaland Peace Mission

  • During the third Nagaland Baptist Convention at Wokha from January 31 to February 2, 1964, the church council resolved to form a mission to restore peace and find an amicable solution to the Naga political problem.
  • The Nagaland Peace Mission was formed by the Nagaland Baptist Church Council to restore peace in the state and got the Government of India and NNC to sign an agreement to suspend operations in September 1964.
  • The Nagaland Peace Mission comprised of Chaliha, veteran freedom fighter Jayaprakash Narayan and a prominent clergyman from England, Rev. Michael Scott.

1964, September 6 : Cease-Fire Agreement signed between the Federal Government of Nagaland and Government of India

  • International Cease-Fire Agreement with the Federal Government of Nagaland, which was signed on May 24, 1964 at Sakraba in Chakhesang Region and came into effect on 6th September 1964.
  • Jawaharlal Nehru passed away on  27th May 1964 which slowed down the bilateral talks.

1965, April 7:  Formation of Eastern Naga Revolutionary Council (ENRC)

  • Eastern Nagas formed the Eastern Naga Revolutionary Council (ENRC) on 7th April 1965 at Somra, a Tangkhul Naga village in Burma under the leadership of Eno (Mr.) Jopoh to defend their sovereignty against the Burmese aggressors.

1968, August 31 : GoI declares NNC / FGN as “Unlawful Association”

  • The government of India declared that the NNC, the Federal Government of Nagaland and its Army (the Federal Army) were “unlawful associations” under the unlawful activities (prevention) Act, no. 37 of 1967.

1972, 21 January: Formation of Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh



  • The remaining North-East Frontier Agency became the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • Its administrative headquarters was Shillong (until 1974, when it was transferred to Itanagar). It got the status of State on 20th February, 1987.

1975, November 11 : Shillong Accord

  • Shillong Accord was signed on 11 November 1975 between the Government of India and the NNC Federal Government Representative along with agreement to give up arms.
    Ref:
  • Supposed to be a “solution” to the “Naga Problem”, but elements within the NNC were divided over the Shillong Agreement and the acceptance of the Indian Constitution. Soon afterwards, Isak Swu and Muivah denounced the Accord as ‘treason’ and the signatories representing the NNC-Federal Government were proclaimed traitors.

1978, September 9 : The Naga People’s Movement for Human Rights (NPMHR) is formed.

1979, March 10: Eastern Naga Revolutionary Council (ENRC) merged with the Naga National Council

  • Eastern Naga Revolutionary Council (ENRC) merged with the Naga National Council on 10th March 1979 led by its President Eno S.S. Khaplang.

1980, January 31 : Formation of National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN)

  • A group of about 140 members led by Thuingaleng Muivah, who were at that time in China, refused to accept the Shillong Accord, and formed the National Socialist Council of Nagaland in 1980.
  • The Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN) was established by former members of the NNC lead by Thuingaleng Muivah, Isak Chishi Swu and S.S.Khaplang (a Hemi Naga from Myanmar), who did not accept the Shillong Accord.
  • The main goal of the organisation is to establish a sovereign Naga state, “Nagalim“, which would consist of all the areas inhabited by the Naga people in Northeast India and Northwest Myanmar. According to the NSCN manifesto, their slogan is “Nagaland for Christ“.

1988, April 30: NSCN split into two factions – NSCK (IM) and NSCN (K)

  • NSCN split into NSCN (IM) and NSCN (K) after a violent inter-factional clashes.
  • NSCN-K group was formed by Shangwang Shangyung Khaplang and is headquartered at Taga in Myanmar.
  • Thuingaleng Muivah and Issak Chisi Swu floated NSCN-IM and is presently headquartered at Hebron, Dimapur, Nagaland.

1990, April 30 : Death of Mr. A.Z. Phizo, the exiled NNC President in London.

1990: Split in NNC

  • In 1990 after death of Phizo, NNC split into NNC (A) led by Phizo’s daughter Adino and NNC (K) headed by Vice-president Khodao Yanthan. NNC (K) later merged with NSCN (IM)

1990, 1 May: Ms. Adino Phizo, the daughter of Mr. A.Z. Phizo, is made NNC  (A) “acting president” by the ‘Shillong Accordist’ in the NNC.

1990, July 17 : Mr. Khodao Yanthan (from Lotha tribe) is elected the new president of the NNC (K)

  • Mr. Khodao Yanthan (from Lotha tribe) is elected as the new president of the NNC (K) after he returned from his London exile.
  • (From another source: Khodao was elected the president of the NNC at a meeting in Wokha on September 18, 1990)

1993, January 23 : The NSCN (IM) became a member of the “Underrepresented Nations and People Organisation (UNPO)”.

The NSCN (IM) became a member of the “Underrepresented Nations and People Organisation (UNPO)” on 23 January 1993 which is also considered one among the major Naga Political Developments, due to acceptance and representation of Nagas at a global stage like UNPO.

An excerpt from the UNPO page reads:

Nagalim is represented at UNPO by the National Socialist Council of Nagalim (NSCN(IM)). The NSCN was created in 1980 to strengthen the resistance movement of the Nagas after a delegation of the Naga National Council (NNC) signed an agreement with the Indian government committing to unconditional acceptance of the Constitution of India. The “Shillong Accord” was seen by the National Assembly of the Nagas as a betrayal to their movement and the NSCN stood up against it and gathered worldwide attention for the Naga case. Representatives of the NSCN attended various international meetings, visited numerous countries and, after resisting years of military attacks, engaged in negotiations with India’s central government in the 1990s, representing the interests of the Naga.

On 23 January 1993, the organisation was admitted to UNPO. The NSCN(IM) is still engaged in negotiations with the Indian government, having reached a historic pre-agreement in 2015. In August 2017, the organisation affirmed that the parties were close to a final agreement.

(Source: UNPO)

1995, June 15 : Prime Minister, P V Narasimha Rao met Muivah, Isak Swu and other in Paris. Series of meetings followed.

1995, November: Ministry of State (Home), Rajesh Pilot met Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chishi Swu in Bangkok.

1997,  February 3: Prime Minister, H D Deve Gowda met Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chishi Swu in Zurich, Switzerland, which was followed by meetings in Bangkok and Geneva.




1997,  August 1: Cease Fire Agreement between Govt. of India and NSCN (IM)

  • The Government of India signed a ceasefire agreement with NSCN (IM) on July 25, 1997, which came into effect on August 1, 1997. Over 80 rounds of talks are held subsequently. (Source: South Asia Terrorism Portal)

1998,  September 30: Prime Minister, Atal Bihari Vajpayee met Thuingaleng Muivah and Isak Chishi Swu in Paris.

1998, November 14: The first ceasefire agreement between NSCN(K) and Government of India.

  • Considered a major step among various Naga political developments, Union Government announces cease-fire with the National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Khaplang (NSCN-K) for the first time for two months from November 15, 1998, to January 15, 1999.

2001, April 30: Union Government and the NSCN-K formulate a 15-point charter of cease-fire grounds rules in Nagaland.

2001, November 5: Ceasefire with NSCN(K) begins
The second cease-fire supervisory board meeting between representatives of the Union Government and NSCN-K in Kohima resulted in both parties resolving to implement the cease-fire ground rules.

2007, November 23: Formation of National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Unification (NSCN-U)

  • National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Unification (NSCN-U) was formed on November 23, 2007 with an inter-factional ‘truce agreement’ signed between few cadres and leaders of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM) and the rival National Socialist Council of Nagaland–Khaplang (NSCN-K) at Hovishe under Niuland sub-division in Dimapur district.

2009, June 13: ‘Covenant of Reconciliation’ (CoR) signed by the top leaders of NSCN-K, NSCN-IM and the Federal Government of Nagaland / Naga National Council (FGN/NNC)

  • ‘Covenant of Reconciliation’ (CoR) signed by the top leaders of NSCN-K, NSCN-IM and the Federal Government of Nagaland / Naga National Council (FGN/NNC) on June 13, 2009, after a Naga Reconciliation meet was held in Chiang Mai in Thailand from June 1 to June 8, 2009.
  • One of the benefits of the CoR: it brought down decades of factional violence and killings.

2011, June 7: NSCN (Khole-Kitovi) or NSCN (KK) is formed

  • NSCN (KK), a ‘splinter group’ of NSCN-K, was formed under the leadership of Khole Konyak and Kitovi Zhimomi after internal conflicts with S.S.Khaplang, leader of NSCN (K).

2012,February 12: NSCN(K) signed ceasefire with Myanmar Government

2013, October 31: Massive ACAUT (Against Corruption and Unabated Taxation) rally in Dimapur resolving on ‘one government one tax’.

2015, March 27: NSCN (K) abrogated ceasefire with Government of India

  • NSCN-K abrogates the 14-year old cease-fire agreement with Government of India after NSCN-K president and Chairman S.S Khaplang, along with other leaders resolved to abrogate it.

2015, March 28: SS Khaplang expells two senior leaders from NSCN (K)

  • SS Khaplang expelled ‘kilonser’ (minister) Wangtin Naga and ‘kilonser’ Tikhak from both the ‘party’ and the ‘government’ for their participation in yhe Cease Fire meeting with Government of India.

2015, April 6: Formation of NSCN (Reformation)

  • NSCN(K) splits into NSCN(K) and NSCN (Reformation)
    Expelled NSCN-K leaders Y. Wangtin Naga and P. Tithak form a new outfit, ‘National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Reformation)’ or NSCN (R) and its government as ‘Government of the People’s Republic of Nagaland’ or GPRN.
  • Y. Wangtin Naga and P. Tikhak were expelled by NSCN (K) president and chairman, SS Khaplang after misunderstanding arose over abrogation of ceasefire with the Government of India. The duo, wanted to continue with the ceasefire maintaining that “violence has never served a good purpose and the Naga political problem can only be resolved through peace and negotiation” while Khaplang had it abrogated because the “14 years of ceasefire between NSCN (K) and India has become a mockery and futile exercise.”

2015, April 8: NSCN-K reiterates that it would not compromise on ‘naga sovereignty’ and ‘Pan-naga’ identity and reaffirmed its abrogation of the cease fire with the Centre.

2015, April 23: Formation of United National Liberation Front of West South East Asia (UNLFW)

  • Nine north-eastern insurgent groups, including CorCom, ULFA-I, NSCN-K , UNLF formed a joint front by the name- United National Liberation Front of West South East Asia (UNLFW). SS Khaplang, the ‘chairman’ of NSCN-K was selected as the ‘chief’ of UNLFW.

2015, April 27: NSCN-Reformation signs a cease-fire agreement for one year with the Government of India.

2015, May 14: Government of India interlocutor R.N. Ravi briefs the status of peace talks at Khonoma village in Kohima 

  • Government of India interlocutor R.N. Ravi briefed the people about the status of peace talks, at Khonoma village in Kohima district. He stated that sovereignty has many meanings and many shades”..
  • He however made it clear, that if ‘sovereignty’ was to mean “total independence”, then it was ruled out.
  • NSCN-IM has kept integration as its agenda and that both the parties are “examining” on the “best possible way” to deal with it.

2015, July 27: Naga Hoho and ENPO hold a consultative meeting in Dimapur to chalk out their plan to visit NSCN(K) in Myanmar to discussed about the State Government’s proposal to meet S.S. Khaplang and request him to restart ceasefire.

2015, August 3: Naga Peace Accord / Naga Framework Agreement with NSCN (IM)

naga peace accord or framework agreement of 2015

  • Government of India and NSCN-IM signed “Naga Peace Accord” or “Naga Framework Agreement” on 3 August 2015 at New Delhi.
  • The accord is a “framework of agreement”, essentially a set of broad guidelines under which negotiations between Govt. of India and NSCN (IM) can take place, hopefully leading to an acceptable and honourable settlement of the Indo-Naga issue.
  • The Naga Accord signed between the GoI and NSCN-IM was viewed as a major state in the Naga political developments scenario, NSCN-IM being a major player.

2015, August 12: NSCN-IM states that it has agreed to share sovereignty with Government of India.

2015, August 22: NNC rejects the Naga peace accord signed on August 3 between Govt. of India and NSCN (IM).

2015, August 26: Closed door meeting between NSCN-IM leadership and legislators of Nagaland

  • Fifty six Nagaland legislators and over 50 members of NSCN-IM held a closed-door 3rd consultative meeting for over five hours at Chumukedima Police Complex in Dimapur.
  • In the meeting, legislators raised concerns over non involvement of other Naga Political Groups in the ongoing talk. The legislators had reportedly suggested that before inking the final agreement, all the Groups should be taken on board for lasting and peaceful solution.

2015, September 1: Naga Mothers’ Association (NMA) meeting with SS Khaplang

  • Four member team of Naga Mothers’ Association (NMA) led by its President Abieu Meru and adviser Rosemary Dzivichu, went to Myanmar via Pangsha and met senior leaders of NSCN-K. The team spent the night in the outfit’s camp and met Niki Sumi and other top leaders to convey the people’s desire for peace in Nagaland and urged the outfit to resume its truce.

2016, March 13: Khole Konyak, President of NSCN (Unification), joined NSCN-IM

  • President of NSCN (Unification), Khole Konyak has formally joined Isak-Muivah led NSCN even as NSCN (Unification) ordered his expulsion from the outfit.

2016, June 28 : Isak Chishi Swu passed away at 87

 

  • Isak Chishi Swu (11 November 1929 – 28 June 2016) passed away due to health conditions at Fortis hospital in Delhi at 12.40 pm. He was 87.
  • He was the Chairman of the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN).
  • Isak Chishi Swu joined the NNC in 1958 and served as the Foreign Secretary of the outfit and he was later elevated to Vice President of NNC.
  • Isak Chishi Swu was opposed to the signing of the Shillong Accord by the then Naga National Council (NNC) with the Government of India.
  • Following a disagreement, Isak Chishi Swu along with Thuingaleng Muivah and SS Khaplang split NNC into a new faction, called the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN). NSCN was later split again when SS Khaplang decided to part ways and created his own faction called NSCN (K) due to clan rivalries among the Konyak Naga of Nagaland and the Tangkhul Naga of Manipur.

2016, December 13: Six (6) Naga political groups form a ‘Working Group’

  • On 13 December 2016, Six Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs) agreed to come together in the interest of the Naga people and formed an interim platform by the name ‘Working Group’. The group decided on the formation of ‘working committee’, under which Naga political groups “shall chalk out the roadmap towards fulfillment of Naga political aspiration.”
  • The NNPGs is comprised of six (6) Naga Nationalist groups:
    (1) Government of the People’s Republic of Nagaland/National Socialist Council of Nagaland or GPRN/NSCN (Kitovi Zhimomi),
    (2) Federal Government of Nagaland (FGN),
    (3) Naga National Council (Parent Body),
    (4) National People’s Government of Nagaland or NPGN /NNC (NA),
    (5) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Reformation) or NSCN (R) and
    (6) Naga National Council/Government Democratic Republic of Nagaland or (NNC/GDRN) (NA)

2017, June 9: SS Khaplang passes away at 77

  • SS Khaplang ( Shangwang Shangyung Khaplang ) passes away at 77 on 9 June 2017 at Kachin State, Myanmar (Burma) due to Cardiac arrest.

2017, June 20: Khango Konyak is elected as the new chairman of NSCN-K

  • After the death of National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-K) chairman Shangwang Shangyung Khaplang, Lt Gen (Rtd) Khango Konyak was elected as the Chairman/President of the NSCN (K) on June 20, 2017. Konyak was vice-president of the outfit. Khango Konyak  is from Mon district of Nagaland.

2017, August 17:  Chairman of NSCN-K Khango Konyak impeached and replaced by Yung Aung, a Myanmarese Naga. NSCN-K split into two – one faction of Indian Nagas and the other faction of Myanmarese Nagas

  • The Myanmar-based NSCN(K) formally split into two — an Indian-origin faction led by impeached chairman Khango Konyak and the Myanmarese faction led by new chairman Yung Aung (founder SS Khaplang’s nephew). Khango Konyak was apparently impeached for ‘violation of party discipline’.

2017, November 17: GOI and the NNPGs Working Committee sign “agreement”

  • The Govt. of Indiaand the NNPGs Working Committee comprising of six (6) Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs) signed an “agreement” or political document, recognising the political and historical rights of the Nagas to self-determine their future in consonance with their distinct identity. The agreement is not the “final solution” but a foundation on which Govt. of India and NNPGs would pursue further talks.
  • The NNPGs is comprised of six (6) Naga Nationalist groups:
    (1) Government of the People’s Republic of Nagaland/National Socialist Council of Nagaland or GPRN/NSCN (Kitovi Zhimomi),
    (2) Federal Government of Nagaland (FGN),
    (3) Naga National Council (Parent Body),
    (4) National People’s Government of Nagaland (NPGN) of the NNC (NA),
    (5) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Reformation) or NSCN (R) and
    (6) Naga National Council/Government Democratic Republic of Nagaland or (NNC/GDRN) (NA)

2018, October: Khango-led NSCN (K) appoints Isak Sumi as General Secretary of the group.

2019, January 29: Khango-led NSCN (K) joins Working Committee (WC) of Naga National Political Griups (NNPGs) and set to resume talks with Government of India

  • The Khango Konyak-led faction of the banned NSCN (Khaplang), joined the Working Committee (WC) of the Naga National Political Groups (NNPG) on 29 January 2019.
  • Khango Konyak-led faction of the NSCN(K) is now the seventh member of the Working Committee (WC) which is in talks with the Centre along with the dominant rebel group NSCN (IM).

24 OCTOBER 2019: HUKAVI YEPTHOMI, FORMER KILO KILONSER (Home Minister) OF NSCN (IM) JOINS NAGA NATIONAL POLITICAL GROUPS (WC NNPGS)

29 OCTOBER 2019: 22 SENIOR MEMBERS OF THE NSCN (IM) GROUP FROM EASTERN NAGALAND DEFECTED TO JOIN NSCN (UNIFICATION) FACTION ON 28 OCTOBER 2019.

  • Reportedly 22 members of NSCN (IM) from Eastern Nagaland joined NSCN (U) faction, which is a part of the Working Committee (WC) – NNPGs already in parallel negotiations with the Govt. of India over the protracted Naga Solution. Out of the 22 members , fifteen (15) belonged to the ‘political’ section, the remaining seven (7) were from the armed wing of the outfit as per reports.

31 OCTOBER 2019: THREE MONTHS DEADLINE SET BY MODI GOVERNMENT TO END NAGA PEACE TALKS ENDS WITHOUT SOLUTION YET

  • The deadline set by Modi Government to find solution to the prolonged Naga solution issues ends without a solution yet.
  • The NSCN (IM) and the GoI are reportedly stuck on demand for Naga Flag and separate Constitution.
  • Meanwhile, there is parallel negotiations on-going with the other factions which are apart of the  NAGA NATIONAL POLITICAL GROUPS (WC NNPGS).

 

For Chronology of Naga political developments prior to the formation of Nagaland State, refer Part One.

 

Additional Reading:

References:

 

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