Chronology of Naga Political Developments – Part Three



Chronology of Naga Political Developments – Part Three


2001, April 30: Union Government and the NSCN-K formulate a 15-point charter of cease-fire grounds rules in Nagaland.

2001, November 5: Ceasefire with NSCN(K) begins

The second cease-fire supervisory board meeting between representatives of the Union Government and NSCN-K in Kohima resulted in both parties resolving to implement the cease-fire ground rules.

2001, July 14: GoI revokes ‘no territorial limits’ of  Ceasefire

  • NSCM-IM’s demand was  the ceasefire shold be extended to Naga-inhabited areas outside Nagaland, the Centre expressed its reluctance to do so.
  • New Delhi’s interlocutor for peace talks K. Padmanabhaiah announced in the Thai capital the extension of the cease-fire for one more year, commencing 1 August 2001, and that, henceforth, the truce would have no ‘territorial limits.’ The announcement was made on 14 June 2001 — after a two-day meeting with NSCN-IM representatives headed by General Secretary Muivah.
  • The issue of extension of the ceasefire to areas outside Nagaland, however, posed as a threat to the peace in Manipur. Following street violence in Manipur in which 19 people were killed, the Government revoked the decision on 8 July 2001.

Government revoked the decision on 8 July 2001

2007, November 23: Formation of National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Unification (NSCN-U)

  • National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Unification (NSCN-U) was formed on November 23, 2007 with an inter-factional ‘truce agreement’ signed between few cadres and leaders of the National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM) and the rival National Socialist Council of Nagaland–Khaplang (NSCN-K) at Hovishe under Niuland sub-division in Dimapur district.

2008, February: Forum for Naga Reconciliation (FNR) formed

  • The Forum for Naga Reconciliation (FNR) was formed in principle on February 24, 2008.
  • It was one of the outcomes of the Naga Peace Convention organized by the Naga Shisha Hoho in Dimapur. It was christened on March 25, 2008 at Kohima with the support of 39 Naga frontal organizations, the Nagaland Baptist Church Council (NBCC), and the Council of Naga Baptist Churches (CNBC).

2009, June 13: ‘Covenant of Reconciliation’ (CoR)

  • ‘Covenant of Reconciliation’ (CoR) signed by the top leaders of NSCN-K, NSCN-IM and the Federal Government of Nagaland / Naga National Council (FGN/NNC) on June 13, 2009, after a Naga Reconciliation meet was held in Chiang Mai in Thailand from June 1 to June 8, 2009.
  • One of the benefits of the CoR: it brought down decades of factional violence and killings.

2011, August 26:  The ‘Naga Concordant’

  • On 5 December 2011, the ‘Naga Concordant’ was signed.
  • It is a joint declaration signed by all the six leaders—Isak Chishi Swu and Thuingaleng Muivah of NSCN-IM; ‘General’ Khole Konyak and N. Kitovi Zhimomi of NSCN-Khole-Kitovi; and ‘Brigadier’ S. Singnya and Zhopra Vero of NNC after they resolved “in principle” on 26 August 2011, to work towards the formation of one ‘Naga National Government’.
  • The signatories stated: “Having Reconciled on the basis of the Historical and Political Rights, the top Naga leaders have agreed that Nagas are ONE. Therefore, in pursuance of this agreement, the following signatories have resolved in principle to work towards the formation of one Naga National Government. To expedite this process of eventually forming the Naga National Government, a High Level Commission was formed with the Forum for Naga Reconciliation as facilitators.”

2011, June 7: NSCN (Khole-Kitovi) or NSCN (KK) formed

  • NSCN (KK), a ‘splinter group’ of NSCN-K, was formed under the leadership of Khole Konyak and Kitovi Zhimomi after internal conflicts with S.S.Khaplang, leader of NSCN (K).

2012, February 12: NSCN(K) signed ceasefire with Myanmar Government

2013, October 31: Massive ACAUT (Against Corruption and Unabated Taxation) rally in Dimapur resolving on ‘one government one tax’.

2014 March 28 : Lenten Agreement

  • Signed on March 28, 2014, by Isak Swu, Th Muivah, Gen (Retd) Kholi Konyak, Kitovi Zhimomi, Brig (Retd) S Singnya and Zhopra Vero.
  • In the Agreement, the signatories stated: “We request the FNR to work out the modalities to expedite the process. While this task is being carried out, we call for the maintenance of status quo, by vigilantly refraining from any unwarranted activities by the Nagas. Furthermore, in the spirit of Naga unity, through reconciliation and peace, we remain open to other Naga groups who are committed to Naga reconciliation and agree, to abide and uphold its aim and purposes.”

2015, March 27: NSCN (K) abrogated ceasefire with Government of India

  • NSCN-K abrogates the 14-year old cease-fire agreement with Government of India after NSCN-K president and Chairman S.S Khaplang, along with other leaders resolved to abrogate it.

2015, March 28: SS Khaplang expells two senior leaders from NSCN (K)



  • SS Khaplang expelled ‘kilonser’ (minister) Wangtin Naga and ‘kilonser’ Tikhak from both the ‘party’ and the ‘government’ for their participation in yhe Cease Fire meeting with Government of India.

2015, April 6: Formation of NSCN (Reformation)

  • NSCN(K) splits into NSCN(K) and NSCN (Reformation)
    Expelled NSCN-K leaders Y. Wangtin Naga and P. Tithak form a new outfit, ‘National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Reformation)’ or NSCN (R) and its government as ‘Government of the People’s Republic of Nagaland’ or GPRN.
  • Y. Wangtin Naga and P. Tikhak were expelled by NSCN (K) president and chairman, SS Khaplang after misunderstanding arose over abrogation of ceasefire with the Government of India. The duo, wanted to continue with the ceasefire maintaining that “violence has never served a good purpose and the Naga political problem can only be resolved through peace and negotiation” while Khaplang had it abrogated because the “14 years of ceasefire between NSCN (K) and India has become a mockery and futile exercise.”

2015, April 8: NSCN-K reiterates that it would not compromise on ‘naga sovereignty’ and ‘Pan-naga’ identity and reaffirmed its abrogation of the cease fire with the Centre.

2015, April 23: Formation of United National Liberation Front of West South East Asia (UNLFW)

  • Nine north-eastern insurgent groups, including CorCom, ULFA-I, NSCN-K , UNLF formed a joint front by the name- United National Liberation Front of West South East Asia (UNLFW). SS Khaplang, the ‘chairman’ of NSCN-K was selected as the ‘chief’ of UNLFW.

2015, April 27: NSCN-Reformation signs a cease-fire agreement for one year with the Government of India.

2015, May 14: Government of India interlocutor R.N. Ravi briefs the status of peace talks at Khonoma village in Kohima 

  • Government of India interlocutor R.N. Ravi briefed the people about the status of peace talks, at Khonoma village in Kohima district. He stated that sovereignty has many meanings and many shades”..
  • He however made it clear, that if ‘sovereignty’ was to mean “total independence”, then it was ruled out.
  • NSCN-IM has kept integration as its agenda and that both the parties are “examining” on the “best possible way” to deal with it.

2015, July 27: Naga Hoho and ENPO hold a consultative meeting in Dimapur to chalk out their plan to visit NSCN(K) in Myanmar to discussed about the State Government’s proposal to meet S.S. Khaplang and request him to restart ceasefire.

2015, August 3: Naga Peace Accord / Naga Framework Agreement with NSCN (IM)

naga peace accord or framework agreement of 2015

  • Government of India and NSCN-IM signed “Naga Peace Accord” or “Naga Framework Agreement” on 3 August 2015 at New Delhi.
  • The accord is a “framework of agreement”, essentially a set of broad guidelines under which negotiations between Govt. of India and NSCN (IM) can take place, hopefully leading to an acceptable and honourable settlement of the Indo-Naga issue.
  • The Naga Accord signed between the GoI and NSCN-IM was viewed as a major state in the Naga political developments scenario, NSCN-IM being a major player.

2015, August 26: Closed door meeting between NSCN-IM leadership and legislators of Nagaland

  • Fifty six Nagaland legislators and over 50 members of NSCN-IM held a closed-door 3rd consultative meeting for over five hours at Chumukedima Police Complex in Dimapur.
  • In the meeting, legislators raised concerns over non involvement of other Naga Political Groups in the ongoing talk. The legislators had reportedly suggested that before inking the final agreement, all the Groups should be taken on board for lasting and peaceful solution.

2015, September 1: Naga Mothers’ Association (NMA) meeting with SS Khaplang

  • Four member team of Naga Mothers’ Association (NMA) led by its President Abieu Meru and adviser Rosemary Dzivichu, went to Myanmar via Pangsha and met senior leaders of NSCN-K. The team spent the night in the outfit’s camp and met Niki Sumi and other top leaders to convey the people’s desire for peace in Nagaland and urged the outfit to resume its truce.

2016, March 13: Khole Konyak, President of NSCN (Unification), joined NSCN-IM

  • President of NSCN (Unification), Khole Konyak has formally joined Isak-Muivah led NSCN even as NSCN (Unification) ordered his expulsion from the outfit.

2016, June 28 : Isak Chishi Swu passed away at 87

isak-chishi-swu-dead-2016

  • Isak Chishi Swu (11 November 1929 – 28 June 2016) passed away due to health conditions on 28 June 2016  at Fortis hospital in Delhi at 12.40 pm. He was 87.
  • He was the Chairman of the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN).
    • Isak Chishi Swu joined the NNC in 1958
    • Served as the Foreign Secretary of NNC and he was later elevated to Vice President of NNC.
  • Isak Chishi Swu was opposed to the signing of the Shillong Accord by the then Naga National Council (NNC) with the Government of India.
  • Following a disagreement, Isak Chishi Swu along with Thuingaleng Muivah and SS Khaplang split from NNC into a new faction, called the Nationalist Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN). Later in 1988, NSCN split into NSCN (IM) and NSCN (K).

2016, December 13: Six (6) Naga political groups form a ‘Working Group’

  • On 13 December 2016, Six Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs) agreed to come together in the interest of the Naga people and formed an interim platform by the name ‘Working Group’. The group decided on the formation of ‘working committee’, under which Naga political groups “shall chalk out the roadmap towards fulfillment of Naga political aspiration.”
  • The NNPGs is comprised of six (6) Naga Nationalist groups:
    (1) Government of the People’s Republic of Nagaland/National Socialist Council of Nagaland or GPRN/NSCN (Kitovi Zhimomi),
    (2) Federal Government of Nagaland (FGN),
    (3) Naga National Council (Parent Body),
    (4) National People’s Government of Nagaland or NPGN /NNC (NA),
    (5) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Reformation) or NSCN (R) and
    (6) Naga National Council/Government Democratic Republic of Nagaland or (NNC/GDRN) (NA)

2017, June 9: SS Khaplang passes away at 77

  • SS Khaplang ( Shangwang Shangyung Khaplang ) passes away at 77 on 9 June 2017 at Kachin State, Myanmar (Burma) due to Cardiac arrest.

2017, June 20: Khango Konyak is elected as the new chairman of NSCN-K

  • After the death of National Socialist Council of Nagaland (NSCN-K) chairman Shangwang Shangyung Khaplang, Lt Gen (Rtd) Khango Konyak was elected as the Chairman/President of the NSCN (K) on June 20, 2017. Konyak was vice-president of the outfit. Khango Konyak  is from Mon district of Nagaland.

2017, August 17:  Chairman of NSCN-K Khango Konyak impeached and replaced by Yung Aung, a Myanmarese Naga. NSCN-K split into two – one faction of Indian Nagas and the other faction of Myanmarese Nagas

  • The Myanmar-based NSCN(K) formally split into two — an Indian-origin faction led by impeached chairman Khango Konyak and the Myanmarese faction led by new chairman Yung Aung (founder SS Khaplang’s nephew). Khango Konyak was apparently impeached for ‘violation of party discipline’.

2017, November 17: GOI and the NNPGs Working Committee sign “agreement”

  • The Govt. of Indiaand the NNPGs Working Committee comprising of six (6) Naga National Political Groups (NNPGs) signed an “agreement” or political document, recognising the political and historical rights of the Nagas to self-determine their future in consonance with their distinct identity. The agreement is not the “final solution” but a foundation on which Govt. of India and NNPGs would pursue further talks.
  • The NNPGs is comprised of six (6) Naga Nationalist groups:
    (1) Government of the People’s Republic of Nagaland/National Socialist Council of Nagaland or GPRN/NSCN (Kitovi Zhimomi),
    (2) Federal Government of Nagaland (FGN),
    (3) Naga National Council (Parent Body),
    (4) National People’s Government of Nagaland (NPGN) of the NNC (Non-Accordist),
    (5) National Socialist Council of Nagaland (Reformation) or NSCN (R) and
    (6) Naga National Council/Government Democratic Republic of Nagaland or (NNC/GDRN) (Non-Accordist)

2018, October: Khango-led NSCN (K) appoints Isak Sumi as General Secretary of the group.

2019, January 29: Khango-led NSCN (K) joins Working Committee (WC) of Naga National Political Griups (NNPGs) and set to resume talks with Government of India



  • The Khango Konyak-led faction of the banned NSCN (Khaplang), joined the Working Committee (WC) of the Naga National Political Groups (NNPG) on 29 January 2019.
  • Khango Konyak-led faction of the NSCN(K) is now the seventh member of the Working Committee (WC) which is in talks with the Centre along with the dominant rebel group NSCN (IM).

24 OCTOBER 2019: HUKAVI YEPTHOMI, FORMER KILO KILONSER (Home Minister) OF NSCN (IM) JOINS NAGA NATIONAL POLITICAL GROUPS (WC NNPGS)

29 OCTOBER 2019: 22 SENIOR MEMBERS OF THE NSCN (IM) GROUP FROM EASTERN NAGALAND DEFECTED TO JOIN NSCN (UNIFICATION) FACTION ON 28 OCTOBER 2019.

  • Reportedly 22 members of NSCN (IM) from Eastern Nagaland joined NSCN (U) faction, which is a part of the Working Committee (WC) – NNPGs already in parallel negotiations with the Govt. of India over the protracted Naga Solution. Out of the 22 members , fifteen (15) belonged to the ‘political’ section, the remaining seven (7) were from the armed wing of the outfit as per reports.

31 OCTOBER 2019: THREE MONTHS DEADLINE SET BY MODI GOVERNMENT TO END NAGA PEACE TALKS ENDS WITHOUT SOLUTION YET

  • The deadline set by Modi Government to find solution to the prolonged Naga solution issues ends without a solution yet.
  • The NSCN (IM) and the GoI are reportedly stuck on demand for Naga Flag and separate Constitution.
  • Meanwhile, there is parallel negotiations on-going with the other factions which are apart of the  NAGA NATIONAL POLITICAL GROUPS (WC NNPGS).

08 September 2021: NSCN (K) – Niki group enters one year ceasefire agreement with GoI

National Socialist Council of Nagaland (K) Niki Group entered into ceasefire agreement for one year with the Government of India on 8th September 2021. As per media reports, more than 200 cadres of the outfit joined the ceasefire with 83 weapons.

In a statement, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) said the agreement would boost the Naga peace process, under the guidance of Union Home Minister Amit Shah, fulfilling Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s vision of an insurgency-free and prosperous northeast.

09 September 2021: Governor of Nagaland RN Ravi transferred out and assigned Governor of Tamil Nadu

RN Ravi, the interlocutor of Naga peace talks and the Governor of Nagaland State has been transferred and assigned the Governor of Tamil Nadu on 09 September 2021.

  • RN Ravi is an IPS officer of 1976 batch from Kerala cadre.
  • In 2012, he retired as the Special Director of Intelligence Bureau.
  • In 2014, he was appointed as the government interlocutor on the Naga peace talks
  • In 2015, framework agreement was signed with the NSCN-IM, in which RN Ravi was a signatory on behalf of the Centre, in the presence of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.
  • In 2019, he was made the Governor of Nagaland besides the responsibility of being the interlocutor of Naga Peace Talks. He took charge as the 19th Governor of Nagaland in 2019.

16 September 2021: Ex-IB Director Akshaya Kumar Mishra reportedly to be the new Naga Peace Talks interlocutor

After the transfer of the R.N. Ravi out of Nagaland in September 2021, the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India is reportedly all set to appoint Akshaya Kumar Mishra as the new interlocutor for Naga Peace talks, though official notification is not yet released by GoI.

A K Mishra is an IPS officer of 1987 batch of the Rajasthan cadre. Like the RN Ravi, Mishra is also a former Special Director of Intelligence Bureau.

19 November 2021: Split in NSCN/GPRN (Reformation)

NSCN (Reformation) split from into two different groups -(1) Wangtin led NSCN(R) and (2) Akato Chophi led NSCN(R).

  • Akato Chophi, Former Vice President of the undivided NSCN (R), was elected President of the new NSCN (R) group.
  • As per news reports, the new NCSN (R) group announced a “unilateral ceasefire” with the Government of India.
  • Wangtin led NSCN (R) expelled Akato Chophi for ‘anti-party activities’.
  • NSCN (R) President, Y Wangtin Naga and Ato Kilonser, P Tikhak issued a press statement expressing regret at the development and expelled Akato Chophi.

04 December 2021: Oting Killings – Security Forces killed 14 civilians at Oting, Mon, Nagaland

  • Oting Killing happened on the evening of 4th December 2021 at Tiru-Oting road under Tizit and Naganimora sub-divisions of Mon district of Nagaland. A total 14 civilians were killed in a botched operation and 11 more injured in separate incidents.
  • As per media reports, the first firing by the security forces killed six (6) civilians. Apparently, the army mistook coal mine workers returning home in a pick-up truck to be insurgents belonging to the  banned outfit NSCN (K-Yung Aung faction), about whose movements they had been tipped off.
  • Special Investigation Team (SIT) formed by the Nagaland Government to probe the incident.
  • Following the incident, Cultural activities at the Naga Heritage Village, Kisama were suspended for a day (6 December). However, several tribal organization pulled out of the Hornbill Festival celebrations to stand in solidarity.
  • Candlelight vigil services were held across the state.
  • Demand to repeal Armed Forces Special Powers Act (AFSPA – 1958) from the state of Nagaland grows.

 

30 December 2021: Centre declared Nagaland as ‘Disturbed Area’. AFSPA extended for six more months till 30 June 2022

  • The Central Government declared Nagaland a ‘Disturbed Area’ and extended the controversial ‘Armed Forces Special Power Act (AFSPA)’ in entire state of Nagaland for six more month, that is, till 30 June 2022.
  • This came amid the protests for withdrawal of going on in several districts of over the killing of 14 civilians by the security forces in Mon district earlier this December, mistaking them as insurgents.
  • The AFSPA empowers the security forces to conduct operations and arrest anyone without any warrant. It also gives immunity to the forces if they shoot someone dead.

  • Part One –Prior to the formation of Nagaland State.

  • Part Two –Post formation of Nagaland State till the year 2000.


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